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ABLE BODIES EMPTY STOMACHS ANALYSIS THE SNAP ABAWD POLICY AND HOW LIMIT ITS IMPACT KALENA THOMHAVE EMERSON HUNGER FELLOW FEBRUARY CONTENTS GLOSSARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION BRIEF HISTORY UNWORTHY POOR AMERICA PORTRAIT ABLEBODIED ADULTS WITHOUT DEPENDENTS DIFFICULT LABOR MARKET FEDERAL REQUIREMENT EXEMPTIONS UNDER AGE OVER LIVING HOUSEHOLD WITH CHILD COMPLYING WORK REQUIREMENTS ANOTHER PROGRAM ALREADY WORKING MORE THAN HOURS WEEK PARTICIPATING DRUG ALCOHOL REHABILITATION STUDENTS ENROLLED LEAST HALF TIME PHYSICALLY MENTALLY UNFIT FOR EMPLOYMENT PREGNANT CARING DISABLED INCAPACITATED MEMBER APPLIED RECEIVING UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION MIGRANTSEASONAL FARMWORKER EXPECTED RETURN WITHIN DAYS STATE VICTIM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS FULLTIME VISTA VOLUNTEERS TRAVEL TWO FROM TRAINING SITE GEOGRAPHIC WAIVERS REGAINING ELIGIBILITY RECOMMENDATIONS ADVOCATE CAN EVER ELIMINATED REFERENCES APPENDIX DHS SCREENING TOOL MEDICAL EXEMPTION FORM JUST HARVESTS FACT SHEET ONE PAGE CONDENSED CLIENTS LETTER POTENTIAL FOOD STAMP FURTHER READING Ablebodied adult without dependents Rule This policy limits ablebodied receiving food stamps for only three months threeyear period unless they are meeting work requirement this paper also refer rule the time limit simply The uses term denote anyone who does not have diagnosed mental physical disability and thus use throughout report However recognize that further stigmatizes those unable due disabilities though their bodies may still able Department Human Services Pennsylvanias state welfare agency FNS Food Nutrition Service Stamps Another benefits received from was called Program until PRWORA Personality Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act Supplemental Assistance formerly known largest federal assistance program country official measure unemployment more comprehensive than includes discouraged workers were searching but gave USDA United States Agriculture Workfare alternative model allocation where participant works either through community service Hunger Free Community Report provides analysis recommendations regarding concerning adults ABAWDs According enacted caring child elderly disabled person will limited working participating least hours each month average per week some other federally statedefined exemption Because Great Recession suspended April September part American Recovery Reinvestment Federal mandates states can receive geographic waivers based area nearly all these years following recession economy improves primarily rate expiring Most already reinstated requirements coming advocates interested learning about history enactment how its impact lowincome hungry people Just Harvest antihunger antipoverty organization Allegheny County Pennsylvania has focused efforts alleviating effects our Therefore presents experience with plans Pittsburgh surrounding areas While would most help advocate andor information presented such way any benefit should provide necessary background key allowed considerable discretion implementing between ages live household needed home care member remain eligible beyond category must individual could participate allows them off volunteering certain number required found dividing total allotment set wage typically minimum maximum need volunteer Besides dependent there exemptions exempt having adhere allow continue Additional include Mentally physically unfit Earning averaged monthly Complying another Pregnant women drug alcohol treatment Receiving applied Unemployment Insurance Students enrolled halftime Living Migrantseasonal farmworkers expected return within days Only Exemptions Homeless individuals Victims domestic violence Expecting Travel two employment training site Fulltime Ameri Corps Volunteers For option meet options obligation slot risk losing BARRIERS potential much harm affected actually effectively become employed Those incredibly poor incomes just percent poverty level annually face variety barriers negatively affect job prospects even healthy reached prerecession health Like many deal inadequate access transportation education employable skills language criminal histories undiagnosed homelessness loses because increased hunger additional barrier There avenues recommend officials cut addition themselves take steps communities assist essential identify methods keep Identify notify likely Develop opportunities efficient ensure nonexempt locate build network slots volunteers Ensure disseminated simple understand easy spread consistent resources prioritize materials over electronic Starting early one million childless across lose commonly nation administered Agricultures reaches families Approximately households rely children remaining workingage Personal signed into law President Bill Clinton promised end know Ending knew meant ending entitlement replacing Aid Families Dependent Children AFDC Temporary Needy TANF fundamentally changing new imposed cash added recipients documented make incapacitated family requires after outlines threemonth participation Other described later Its note majority Among nondisabled while And had year before But plenty limitations including labor market difficult find fulltime jobs since suspension included ARRA Over Since then been slowly outright rejected administrations introduce introduced January again first several written present experienced well suggest ways agencies stigma aid long From onset English governmental Elizabethan Poor Law which original colonies modeled laws distinction made disabledthe worthy poorand ablebodiedthe unworthy Protestant religious ideas influenced public policies subsequent entered Union thought granted hierarchy suggested eras interpretation Christianity natural power needy inferiors value ethic prized result considered Cotton Mather summed view colonial America when said indulge idleness express command God unto let starve These continued advent late eighteenth century combined uniquely ideology often referred exceptionalism longer seen instead resourceabundant began embrace idea reason exist obliteratedin allowing perish land acceptable cause weakness dating back hundreds heavily influence opinion toward recently reform demonstrates workfirst distrust embraced settlers today Americans harshly groups Figure Whos Worthy Help Who Isnt Poll Graph data provided Reuters according November Reuters Ipsos poll views appear correlate receives National Bureau Economic Research study cited government factored continuously factoring Intersecting researchers Harvard Institute countries racial fragmentation powerful predictor redistribution disproportionate amount spending goes minorities race relations clearly strained support impoverished funds pay necessities healthcare shelter etc Cutting sometimes income important intended legislations authors push Instead clear legislative archives offered used frequently search programs permissible under provision effort encourage offer spots Balanced Budget pledge pledging wants opted fact February elected pledge Colorado Delaware South Dakota Texas Wisconsin Some chosen implement waivereligible Louisiana statewide waiver originally newly governor sworn reversed decision previous administration group fit particular stereotype men They urban suburban rural Their vary age range commonality among extreme Individuals Fit Particular Stereotype Data CBPP characteristics March Current Population Survey People poorest show line generally qualify type normal economic times yet problem lies reporting Many handful odd try enough money means consistently reach getting verification various jobswhere payment inkind selfemployment otherwise sporadiccan pose great difficulty especially someone living stress approximately county Philadelphia waived high rates explained request entire conditions Primarily shown measured Labor fully reflect given nations recovery therefore LIMITATIONS RATE actively looking cannot nor currently parttime prefer position both looked lowest indicates entirely restored levels Were feeling stilldeclining laborforce longterm unemployed fall weak growth arent projected mid stagnant hasnt certainly finding WILLINGNESS DISREGARDED adequate met solely Job count half Essentially account willingness involved NOT INCENTIVE When insecurity react adjusting budgets reducing eat foods spend less consuming varied diet fruits vegetables tend cheaper energyrich like refined grains sugars saturated trans fats linked chronic diseases obesity hypertension hyperlipidemia cholesterol diabetes carry own costs leave afflicted USC Working Participating subject general specific follows Under related ineligible immigrant Already earning confusing clarify submit certification equivalent matter worked rehabilitation specify Alcoholics Anonymous Narcotics Higher students criteria possessing higher eligibility institution GED readiness second refugee transition approved define what meansthe itself determine example proof attending Physically mentally ability payments private caseworkers coded Providing medical practitioner personnel verifyin allowable physicians assistants designated representatives office nurse practitioners osteopaths psychologists abuse counselors social midwives podiatrists audiologists therapists occupational optometrists whose services reimbursed Medical Policy unfitness obvious See Appendix form woman pregnant stage pregnancy Caring Applied Compensation farmworker Each agencys population exempting victim Verification selfreported lacks fixed regular nighttime residence primary supervised publicly privately operated hotel congregate designed temporary accommodations institutionalized accommodation place ordinarily sleeping human beings Volunteer Expected employers soon demonstrate evidenced recent above Designation Surplus Area LSA Qualification extended national same Usually attempted counties cities towns Center Priorities employmenttopopulation ratio share jobconsidered best measures labormarket strength unlike isnt lowered artificially give drop out force decisions aggregate shows Not Reading Berks York Allentown Lehigh Harrisburg Dauphin Easton Northampton New Castle Lawrence Lebanon Bethlehem Lancaster Williamsport Lycoming Mc Keesport Berwick Borough Columbia Map regain becoming day timelimited begins regains instance consecutive earn once highly complicated provisions flexibility variations administrative tasks very few dealing restrictions PERIOD exactly track individually meaning clock Administratively elect retroactively clocks begin reset December IDENTIFY EXISTING ABAWDS Bolen implemented appears inadvertently terminated didnt advance implementation develop execute plan existing arrange prove spot prepare timely manner largely budget impasse facing summer allocated department send notices did mid February starting screening tool sent CASEWORKERS SEEING UNFITNESS determinations State caseworker stakeholders applicant inperson interview middle wearing winter coats noted move away interviews online mobile telephone certifications helpful WHO DETERMINE professionals permitted verify Physicians PLEDGE join dollar funding every five Colorado consider ADEQUATE CASEWORKER thorough aspects learn absolutely ensuring remains parties removed rolls heightened burden hire publication protect possible apply applying comprise OTHER STATES beginning ahead date encouraged creative streamline process Florida phone needing document CREATION PROGRAMS preparing Agreement Mutual AMR earlier preparation classes workrelated activities hour devoted fill unpaid Such helping neighbor chores assisting parent COMMUNITY SERVICE WORKFARE traditional clients promoted proponents little evidence workfare increases likelihood client leaves reduce spent conflict lead positive skill building MDRC Manpower Demonstration Corporation leads earnings Yet participated reported felt meaningful skillsbased concept accepted method provider determined Unlike coordinated true necessarily common avenue specifica Setting decrease simplifying actions advocacy organizations members serve NOTIFY STAKEHOLDERS possibly facilitate notification wider created Fact sheet Onepage simplified quick call Client letter informational mailed stamp served past Note differs compared communications read Informational website distribute change combat digital divide exists computer print makes available Ways helpline Ohio Association Banks email address Advocates Special Allowances SPALs monetary order engage clothing tools books supplies complete WHEN DISCUSSING REQUIREMENTTIME discussing using calling suggests encourages look everyone consequences harmful goal adequately Referring stressed create confusion fear easily conveys get around disagree focus protection better harsh policymakerbut directly HAVE PANTRIES TRACK DONATIONS banks pantries donations reduction require seek elsewhere respondents stated relied asked How you providing yourself absence tracking useful determining full picture NEIGHBORHOOD LEGAL SERVICES complexity noncompliance error Clients appeal believes unfairly contact local neighborhood legal matters cost Neighborhood Legal NLS Public Benefits Project addresses needs maintain issue INITIATIVE responded developing coordinating coalition completing ideal vital expires initiative utilizes databases organize internet opportunity near collaborating Way Southwestern PAs partnership database purchased premium subscription Volunteer Matchorg clearinghouse main crosspost Volunteer Match central list relevant Organizations host connect unique login upload edit Potential directed choose location chooses theyll bring sign monththe varies renewed six ends fails IMPROVING completed Mathematica viewed penalizing targeted disliked difficulties encountered administering too burdensome particularly light small size More identified challenges Nearly volunteered Outside unfairness gives complex rather nonpartisan indication creates problems solves Last altered Opportunities House act terminating legislation matched dopromote bill passed improve activity case increasing allotments design specifically reiterating words Rep Jim Mc Govern course others eliminating punishing Dottie Rosenbaum Stacy Dean Brynne Keith Jennings Than Adults Will Lose Waivers Expire Available httpwwwcbpporgresearchfoodassistancemorethanadultswilllosesnapbenefitsinaswaiversexpire Kelsey Gray Characteristics Households Fiscal Year Office Support httpwwwfnsusdagovsitesdefaultfilesops Characteristicspdf Relationship Low Income httpwwwcbpporgresearchtherelationshipbetweensnapandworkamonglowincomehouseholdsfaviewid Walter Trattner Welfare Sixth Edition Simon Schuster Ibid Kristina Cooke David Rohde Ryan Mc Neill Undeserving httpwwwreuterscomsubjectsincomeinequalityindiana Eli Saslow Hard Washington Post httpwwwwashingtonpostcomsfnationalhardwork Alberto Alesina Edward Glaeser Bruce Sacerdote Why Doesnt European Style httpposteconomicsharvardeduhierpaperslisthtml About collected Times declarations audits insurance pensions Jason De Parle Robert Gebeloff Nothing Super Implementing Three Month Time Limit Unemployed Year Olds Civil Justice July httpsmrepositorylibrarygeorgetownedubitstreamhandle SNAPTime Limit Implementation Updatedpdfsequenceis Allowedy Read httporiginwwwfnsusdagovsnaprules Legislationhistory PL_htm Statement Governor httpgovlouisianagovnewsgovernorelectedwardsactstocontinuelowincomefoodassistancewillworkovernextyearonworkforcetrainingrequirements Representatives Committee hearing series Past Present Future initial findings Commission Cognitive load performance memory retrieval peripheral vision selfpresentation reliance stereotypes selfcontrol extent situationsthat somewhat unfamiliar threatening stigmatizing consume cognitive hand Marianne Bertrand Sendhil Mullainathan Eldar Shafir Behavioral Economics Marketing Aids Decision Making Journal Michael Madowitz Danielle Corley Market Pre January Jobs Release httpswwwamericanprogressorgissueseconomynewsthestateoftheuslabormarketprejanuaryjobsrelease Hilary Seligman Barbara Laraia Margot Kushel Insecurity Associated Chronic Disease NHANES Participants httpswwwlawcornelleduuscodetext Our understanding supported Supers Definition homeless Requirements defined Guide Serving Subject Time Limited Participation httpwwwfnsusdagovsitesdefaultfiles Guide_to_Serving_ABAWDs_Subject_to_Time_Limitpdf communication October Meeting Headquarters Thomas Brock Butler Long Unpaid Experience Recipients Paper httpwwwmdrcorgsitesdefaultfilesfull_pdf Comprehensive Assessment Able Bodied Dependents Franklin httpohiofoodbanksorgwep WEPreportpdf SNAPs Implementation Toolkit Learn httpwwwnlsaus volunteermatchorg John Czajka Sheena Mc Connell Scott Cody Nuria Rodriguez Imposing Stamp Receipt Provisions Effects Introduced Mc Dermott httpswwwcongressgovbillthcongresshousebill FAQ httpwwwfnsusdagovsnapablebodiedadultswithoutdependentsabawds Are Lowincome Childless Facing Loss httpwwwcbpporgresearchfoodassistancewhoarethelowincomechildlessadultsfacingthelossofsnapin Jobless Veterans May Due httpwwwcbpporgblogjoblessveteransmaylosefoodassistanceduetotimelimit Pantries Expect Longer Lines Kicks httpwwwcbpporgblogfoodpantriesexpectlongerlinesassnaplimitkicksin Agencies Guide Analysis Rule Implementing The Health Center Project Engaging Centers Allegheny County Food Security Tina Tran PGH Bank Southwestern Partnership Acknowledgements author would first thank Chris West Karen Dreyer Albert Ramirez Aileen Carr and the rest CHC staff for their support guidance throughout this time Thank you your editing encouragement advice content humor wisdom along way also like specifically express gratitude health centers leadership tireless efforts past several months awe inspiring dedication patients community Background about Hunger Fellowship Bill Emerson National program month fellowship created Congressional develop leaders dedicated fighting poverty hunger Participants are placed field site somewhere work with local organization fellows range issues from SNAP WIC affordable housing tenant rights Then Fellows policy Washington national ranging child nutrition voters Field Site Pennsylvania was established initiative Greater Pittsburgh Community decrease number hungry individuals twelve counties focuses enrolling more eligible people into federal programs while conducts direct food distribution Together two entities tandem feed line shorten thus serving those need immediate conditions but working provide sustainable network Currently aims collaborative within three critical sectors employment This report details Partnerships engaging sector Its purpose evaluate pilot project give recommendations future collaboration between prepared ttranhungercenterorg Fellow Table Contents Introduction Overview Stages Methodology Results Training Session Vital Sign Resource Guides Overall Wrap Up Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography Insecurity Fueled conviction that wellness early detection across multiple will dramatically lower healthcare costs most recent wave reform has encouraged increased preventative measures Around same emergency assistance networks saw opportunity connect clients not only resources better manage own response care providers have begun form unique partnerships explore connection security insecurity according Department Agriculture lack access times enough active healthy life all household members limited uncertain availability nutritionally adequate foods approximately population classified insecure many whom make difficult trade offs medical especially medication inadequate can take significant toll human body For example pregnant woman who poses risk herself maternal anemia chance infection well her newborn prematurity elevated birth defects low weight Children much likely developmental delays behavioral problems cause advent chronic deterioration mental adults Chronic Conditions growing literature reinforces sobering evidence insufficient greatly increase disease exacerbate preexisting condition survey conducted used Feeding Americas services found households had choose nearly reported having fair poor series studies emerged linking diabetes after adjusting socioeconomic factors were severely than foodsecure participants Low income vulnerable being overweight obese They subject influences other Americans sedentary lifestyles portion sizes challenges such cycles deprivation overeating due high levels stress These consequences place incredible burden economy State Philadelphia Coalition against state billion Most notably America Diabetes its partner banks bank screened monitored using checkins diabetic friendly boxes year preventable lost economic productivity educational attainment Inadequate undermines our best treat Therefore swift vigilant action needs taken order ensure vibrant One aspects vast organizations end From Just Harvest committed empowering obtain public benefits increasing engagement advocacy Grow promotes agriculture through others strong pantries service together these strengthen social safety net However residents still Furthermore large gaps remain delivered December estimated participating Supplemental Assistance Program Even startling statistic Summer Service lowincome children continue receive nutritious meals even when school session kids Much should done enhance awareness close Educational measured metrics performance standardized testing graduation rates percentage students seeking postsecondary opportunities formerly known Stamp developed out desire understand following knowledge There accessing contribute outcomes been examples successful models screening admitted room target issue helped build stronger case argument improving lead multitude exist designed help struggling supply strived answer question Could improve ability Better intervene relationship Enroll government Build link among professionals over span Oct January main components training Two questions incorporated patient process resource guide governmental charitable partnership Open Door Beverly Bootstraps Pantries Massachusetts Hospitals Lahey offered Prescription Bag which screens Patients identified given bag carefullyselected how pantry Within worried whether run before got money buy last bought just didnt answers often true sometimes one both they included information Federal eligibility requirements Produce People Calendar Banks fresh produce days region Info sheet contact numbers United Way Area Agency Aging Chart info located zip code Free reducedcost transportation complete collaborated seven East Liberty Family Lincoln Lemington Primary Care Services Inc Alma Illery Braddock Hazelwood Metro Swissvale Northside Christian Figure Locations half October each underwent onehour goal baseline understanding what prevalence connections offeredsupported Implementation roughly officially distributed guides folders booklets interested waiting area front desk checkin asked twoquestion tool adapted USDA Household Screening Assessment Childrens Health Watch responded positively either Evaluation Survey Anecdotes Number referrals received Outreach Coordinator distributions Responses followup took Cost Analysis Exit predicted symbiotic yielding results section show Chief allowed assess assist shown center varied further explained methodology Followup gathered certain picked fill Feedback forms calls four locations major distinction implementation determine get usually informal manner leaving them checkout Group Questions Only Methods detailed account please refer Appendix responses Follow Wrap Up Overall analysis proved overall success because virtually gave positive comments addition during final discussion referred back citing crucial helping discern differences approach cited biggest away learning scale available Other common definition Many aware programsresourcesoptions now feel confident talking When equipped talk replied yes trainings effective introduce communicate goals energized secured interest familiarity point person right beginning Lincoln Lemington Question Total replies never Declined responds Risk surveyed NOTE While entire Electronic Medical Record system staffs paper surveys able catch small despite sample size troubling note respectively answered anecdotal feedback solicited Once figured ask super eager hand copy easier write down tell Were finding some longterm dealing know great something tangible going hotcakes astonished little ashamed admit really thought there clearly lot serve Another output measurement via total including printed facilities retained electronic demand reflects gauge usefulness keep track asking then contacted brief Altogether methods create picture utilized Overall learned Special Distributions department charge free around neighboring monthly basis coupon alternative coupons intended Seeing might cumbersome remember bring Three too short exact however important developing tracking Distributed use told friend booklet collected phone intentions mind learn individual least any new Six twenty planning did gotten relative Additionally filled next Partcipaton knew datestimes folder plan soon guidelines helpful daughter Overall Wrap inexpensive capacity deal All below Financial Labor Hours Item Cost Item Quantity Full Time Work Folders Volunteers Paper papers Buttons button buttons Transportation mile reimbursement miles Providers participated exit experience Major Findings collaborating Some reasons consistent communication Toolkit toolkit valuable Increasing Awareness made difference perception colleagues brought greater Challenges Finding questionnaire want voucher Bringing topic sensitive respectful Suggestions see impact Best aspect Unanimously mentioned Additional feeling concrete offer concerns educate addressing Those start conversation measure original revisited exchange gain ways making claims based conducting witness firsthand anecdotes appreciation could basic Second unaware wide Talking identify related areas face surveying nurses discovered struggled find sites conversations involved educating enroll suspected enormous Compared rate federally qualified necessities threemonth period Combined accounts suggest urgent shift lens onto concurrently With energy directed promises lasting improvement lives though intervention level discerning atrisk enrolled timeframe scope follow sources First called Third interviewedmore culture language allows current appeal strongly prospective partners yielded strategies Coupled paved whole dimension Finally structure sustain may affect subsequent check usage Both very promising showing strategic points reach profile indirectly communities surround clear beneficial continued expand coordination investigated happens utilize improved respond long term add credence intertwined Ultimately decreased efficacy confidence address setting quality Next Steps Goals phase claim reduce concentrated always possibility collaborations does happen immediately labor constraints projects conclusion Future Staff Support minimum electronically permits parttime member periodic providing fulltime intentionally patientssuggested discussed Measuring Efficacy seek potential replicate hospital monitoring translated UPMC Network Gateway recommend primary source establish expectations sides mindful abilities achieved part regular method station rotating advise Ideally visit reply indicating heshe provider andor designated nurse coordinator worker receptionist Ameri Corps volunteer sure visible accessible location counter maximize Gathering data collecting discontinued gathering where heard already standard protocol substantiated step intentional status inquire organize signup sign outside off momentum preliminary considered Expanded Several education option adding since naturally focus recipes tips cooking quick budget items typical demo coupled different staples stretch dollar expanded cocoordination nearest card agreed stock alongside counselor another coordinate tailoring closer ensuring Face Facts USA Insecurityit deeper think George University Retrieved Sept httpwwwfacethefactsusaorgfactsfoodinsecurityitrunsdeeperyoumaythink Jeong Hee Bartfeld During Childhood Subsequent Status Early Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort American Journal Public Research Practice November Vol Economic Success Reading Writing Hungry Consequences Nations Lee Issue Brief May httpwwwreadynationorgdocsresearchproject_foodinsecurity _briefpdf Impact httpfeedingamericaorghungerin americaimpactofhungeraspx Seligman Hilary Barbara Laraia Margot Kushel associated NHANES Nutrition httpdnwssxlglscloudfrontnetphillyhungerdefaultpage State Of Hunger_PA_FINALpdf Census Quick httpquickfactscensusgovqfdstateshtml Score Card httpswwwpittsburghfoodbankorgfoodpartnership Watch httpwwwchildrenshealthwatchorgwpcontentuploads FINALHunger Vital Signpager_Page_jpg Terminal Way Pittsburgh Telephone Fax wwwjustharvestorg David Blount Emerson National Hunger Fellow February ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Just Harvest extends its profound thanks the many individuals and organizations who contributed their time expertise enthusiasm outreach research for this report appreciate generous support Giving Grow United Allegheny County making our efforts possible are also grateful parents youth school administrators offered feedback whose valuable insights will help advocate more effectively meet needs children throughout Finally thankful Congressional Center placing with during fall winter his work greatly value CHCs assistance over past decade Kenneth Regal Executive Director ABOUT JUST HARVEST Founded educates empowers mobilizes people eliminate hunger poverty economic injustice communities influencing public policy engaging advocacy connecting benefits guided understanding that symptom product social Rather than charity policies which respond these conditions lowincome best approaches elimination THE CONGRESSIONAL HUNGER CENTER The CHC nonprofit works make issues domestic international priority policymakers government raise new generation leaders fight against Its mission train inspire end create food secure world Fellows Program justice program trains inspires sustains supports diversity local national inequality particularly racism gain field experience fighting through placements community based across country Washington bridges communitybased fellows develop effective movement Table Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION COMMUNITY ELIGIBILITY PROVISION CEP WHAT SCHOOLS SAY PARENTS CONCERNS ADDRESS ACTION STEPS Summary This Free Community Report provides assessment Eligibility Provision approach schools may take serve all students district cost families sought impact from districts service providers state members gathered information presents CEPs effect meal participation finances administrative workloads family households barriers limiting access meals explored intersection addressing child insecurity effects education With present action steps ensure able maximize increasing quality Overall partners those invested nutrition should provide into how using tool increase along challenges still wish address within points discussing resources actions needed successful implementation improving SCHOOL MEALS FOOD INSECURITY Recent has strengthened links between childhood health student performance During childs development hinder socioemotional cognitive contribute obesity future chronic higher absenteeism behavioral disturbances lower academic School have been nourishment healthy improve legislation led greater focus providing hope healthier productive was introduced Child Nutrition Reauthorization Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act way low income high areas free breakfast lunch uses paperless process qualifying piloted states District Columbia before becoming available nationwide year Around eligible adopted universal FEEDBACK conducted phone interviews Using script asked reasons adopting about noticeable workload changes programming groups surveys participating home budgets satisfaction nutritional From informational six three charter networks two four standard emerged decision adopt Increased Decreased eliminating reduced applications Helped uncollectible debt served without reimbursementpayment seven fifty total responses questions Parents expressed increased less concern missing Students preventing them receiving concerns portions seen early success rising decreased they need Now can prevent any regression Recommendations include Nonparticipating CEPeligible consider Congress multiplier determining reimbursement Schools Department Education strengthen direct certification funding supporting alternative programs Introduction Role Federal Meal Programs Addressing Childhood Food Insecurity million live insecure harmful productivity For specifically could see inhibitions overall function mixed But researchers documented negative functionsiii Such circumstances irritable unresponsive behavior courses accumulation setting further behind peers Eighteen percent Countys concentrated corresponding brunt Five Pennsylvania highest concentrations Breakfast Lunch tools typical day participated Over Throughout ate breakfasts Thats per little half years worth same lunches both large proportion childrens intake educational career Knowing building block everyday prioritize part body shows underperformance findings includeiiiivv improves decrease risk protect protects outcomes prioritizing passed President Barack Obama signed law CNR includes plans expand Afterschool Summer enforce standards purposes one parts designed Under offers longer collect paper receives receive repayment federal majority full percentage Instead Illinois Kentucky Michigan were first pilot expanded New York Ohio West Virginia nearly doubled initial utilizing adding Florida Georgia Maryland Massachusetts became currently participate expected growth coming difference non CEP widened well saw breakfastvii HOW DOES WORK Direct Certification important component when considering planning adoption number automatically enrolled Directly Certified least enrollment different takehome determine takes list matches State Human Services stating Through matching directly certified household SNAP Supplemental Assistance TANF Temporary Needy Families Medicaid FDPIR Distribution Indian Reservations homeless runaways migrant Head Start each serves reimbursements cover whole Once estimate amount money expect under calculate would certify multiply figure set calculated represents reimburse dollar remaining reimbursed studentpaid rate Therefore means other words financially advantageous numbers nine ranged Four Another EXPECTED BENEFITS All gets rid leading efficient operations Some revenues due climate alleviated FOR ALLEGHENY COUNTY around qualify application reside concentration lead some seeing percentages See Figure Here becomes option efficiently Gateway eight Intermediate Unitviii sites agencies out average coverage Compared previous estimated additional having FIGURE DISTRICTS WITH HIGHEST CONCENTRATION FREE REDUCED Adopted Free Reduced Least Eligible DUQUESNE CITY DISTRICT CLAIRTON WILKINSBURG BOROUGH STOROX WOODLAND HILLS MCKEESPORT AREA PITTSBURGH CORNELL PENN STEEL VALLEY EAST HIGHLANDS SOUTH NORTHGATE WEST MIFFLIN CARLYNTON BRENTWOOD GATEWAY RIVERVIEW MAP PARTICIPATION Charter unmapped Urban Pathways League Greater Imagine Penn Hills Entrepreneurship Propel but not chosen adoptx What Say After semester started observe Administrators staff happy know kids say lighter since discontinuing concerned encountering fewer logistical financial prior INCREASES ACCESS ALL STUDENTS shared payment tracking caused delays enabled allow constraint result provider including Public modest increases near Participation typically already Mc Keesport Area reported Group Inc revenue contracted acknowledge benefit being impacts wanted There did eat because forgot had difficulty getting returned LESSEN DECREASES ADMINISTRATIVE WORKLOADS ELIMINATING AND LUNCH APPLICATIONS streamlined eligibility only data electronically change helped made Having eliminated frees energy HELPS ELIMINATE UNCOLLECTIBLE DEBT FROM SERVED WITHOUT REIMBURSEMENTPAYMENT dont turn away forget purchase send bill later Oftentimes unable pay outstanding charges eliminates track payments individual introducing thus potential offer equity give Wilkinsburg big reduce taking quarter dollars partnership ask principals Half very much said minimized paperwork principal Responses reinforce helping among PARENT FOCUS GROUPS Woodland Duchesne City share thoughts meetings centers events hosted Three portion size SATISFACTION INCREASED LESS CONCERN MISSING working They denied mishaps thought happen always get fed Two knowing none now described days friends enjoyed used Grab flexible even late allowing simply grab prepared bag homeroom class morning meeting worry bouncing submitted good matter what thing come saying didnt left wondering why thats happening small peanut butter jelly sandwich going last mentioned incidents where stigmatized mainly embarrassment while tray hot BARRIERS STILL PREVENT RECEIVING Even after implementing encounter various fully Time space demand Coordinating preparation serving afterschool run certain options meant often minute period minutes Scheduling such short creates rush Also lack physical accommodate population timely suffers Unlike multiple periods manageablesized open bottleneck arrive once leaving enough revert skipping sit down comfortably PRIORITY PORTIONS QUALITY sizes especially older complain hungry Many told stories too unless second son doesnt running something Without misbehaves hes upset think bigger Meals And hungrier giving great better few fresh cooked ingredients addition surveyed showed theres save noticing fruits vegetables become continues assessments SURVEYxi AROUND SURVEYED SAID THEIR CHILD PARTICIPATES MORE OFTEN BREAKFAST THAN PREVIOUS YEAR BEFORE WAS ADOPTED GREATLY HELP SAVE MONEY BUDGETS HOME SOMEWHAT EITHER EAT FRUITS VEGETABLES Concerns FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS ELIGIBLE chose Financial constraints main reason according estimates Before rely record qualified When variety processed Our Fresh daily Better makes shall received paid priced price sliding combination formula multiplies resulting determines enables Because lose determined Receiving leads find feasible shown helps creating inclusive every LOW According Unfortunately Meaning Challenge answer challenge guidance practices Classroom Bell Monetary incentives top performers showing greatest tripled another eighteen monetary winners shortterm depends heavily generosity donors struggle Scorecard released FRAC slight dropped rank nationwidexii sustainable maintain DIRECT CERTIFICATION represent actual ineffective processing cracks reap identified bottom twelve certifying Less schoolsxiii put then congressional improved processes PDE technology trainings provided Communities Summits rose reaching lessening correct socioeconomic level informing utilize Action Steps Participating worked invest consistent improvement growing reports reflect Moving forward CEPparticipating flexibility commit technical continue progress recommend NONPARTICIPATING CEPELIGIBLE SHOULD CONSIDER ADOPTING nonparticipating feasibility Their marker display solvent want emphasize Benefits promote implement Elimination minimizing losing Steel Valley Network favorable network group CONGRESS INCREASE MULTIPLIER DETERMINING MEAL REIMBURSEMENT expires September pass reauthorization regulations opportunity assess included Increasing Easing previously hesitant strongly Non Participating Districts stand Cornell Riverview Carlynton DEPARTMENT EDUCATION STRENGTHEN EFFORTS IMPROVE use most methods acquire Prioritizing ensures minimal seek capturing person visits grants upgrades systems operate optimally step aggressively standardize Primero Edge system moving Commonwealth Pennsylvanias Access Social COMPASS Focusing transition single infrastructure training current benchmarkxiv PENNSYLVANIA FUNDS SUPPORTING ALTERNATIVE PROGRAMS allocate funds incentive structure carry until gains Funding partnerships personnel integral organize educate importance involvement faculty meets contact materials OUR ROLE MOVING FORWARD willing proper investments done poor Providing Promoting nutritious Joining advocates voice benchmark Economic Impact Nation Feeding America httpwwwnokidhungryorgsitesdefaultfileschildeconomystudypdf Howard Larry Does affect noncognitive longitudinal analysis elementary classroom Economics Review iii Learning Scientific Research Link Between Childrens Academic Performance Fall httpfracorgwpcontentuploadsbreakfastforlearningpdf Health httpfracorgwpcontent uploadsbreakfastforhealthpdf v Childrens Security Intakes Mathematica Policy May httpnaldcnalusdagovdownload PDF Making High Poverty Budget Priorities October httpwwwcbpporgfilesfapdf vii viii AIU special services range shifts unavailability reflected representative xii Year httpfracorgpdf School_Breakfast_Scorecard_SY__pdf xiii Implementation Progress USDA November httpwwwfnsusdagovsitesdefaultfiles NSLPDirect Certificationpdf xiv benchmarks thereafter httpswwwfederalregistergovarticlesnationalschoollunchprogramdirectcertificationcontinuousimprovementplansrequiredbythe Southwestern Pennsylvania Food Security Partnership THE SHARE TABLE ENGAGING PARTNERS AROUND SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM ALLEGHENY COUNTY Maryam Adamu Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow The Share Table WELCOME There unmistakable community atmosphere around ending childhood food insecurity Allegheny County For instance late April collection South Middle School students along with representatives from Pittsburgh Cares and Greater Community Bank gathered discuss issue that was affecting their preparation for schools canned drive the decorated picnic table would drop site asked question participating same service learning project country were asking What Will You Bring Elsewhere summer feeding sites across kids use Tables These are places where can offer whole uneaten parts meal peers perhaps exchange them something they like better apple orange example friend This report focuses positive impact Summer Service Program what has already been accomplished City large more key stakeholders bring share work end INTRODUCTION CHILDHOOD INSECURITY years following Great Recession many Americans found themselves without gainful employment dollars being stretched absolute thinnest Department Agriculture reported households experienced stretch some point during year Compare experiencing becomes clear past few have especially tough families condition having limited uncertain availability nutritionally adequate safe foods ability acquire acceptable low paying job lack access transportation sometimes gap between reaching security Unfortunately these circumstances disproportionately affect children Fully every United States insecure Much evergrowing body research points devastating health education economic outcomes associated several times likely underperform academically behavioral issues require special andor repeat grade Our best efforts preparing healthy prosperous future often undercut when child too hungry stressed learn cycles poverty persist Put simply providing nutritious today first step ensuring robust workforceready society tomorrow SECURITY Within there exists incredible network individuals programs organizations working together help alleviate hunger area Banks partner distribution gardens Farmers Markets accept SNAP WIC benefits Still over living those homeless period time last That number jumps preschool age factored More must done take care one most vulnerable segments our population Partnershipan initiative Bankwas developed significantly reduce Working hope feed line shorten While primarily direct works get people enrolled federal nutrition which eligible thereby shortening emergency Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Formerly known stamps program assists lowincome purchasing grocery stores farmers markets supermarkets Women Infants Children through states supplemental mothers infants five Breakfast Lunch Programs constant source school However not session SFSP administered Education helps provide free meals this different levels involved SPONSORS government agencies nonprofits generally assume responsibility running including training supervisors filing reimbursements regulations VENDORS production component Sponsors capacity tend contract companies culinary prepare SITES physical location congregate receive parksplaygrounds houses worship centers OPEN districts wherein least reduced neighborhoods qualify open offered any prior registration required making valuable resource communities Outside roles delineated grow presence recruiting serve volunteerbased seek out OUTREACH flyers other outreach materials Though everyone able participate level recognize importance spreading word about helpful SITE SUPERVISORS who attend then responsible taking tallies temperatures pointperson particular Several will person spearheading but alternate cosite available spread VOLUNTEERS programming requirement participation tends much higher activities also offeredrecreation reading groups Essentially requires quite bit organizing particularly two barriers keep facilitating relationships ensure all entities need started each Additionally Human Services DHS Parks Recreation developing sponsored Citi Parks total sponsors served snacks Each day nearly participated county ranging Vacation Bible Schools recreation camps pools under WHERE WORKS Below map Feeding ran Blue squares indicate red half registered lunch ideal environment within walking distance home SOUTHEASTERN NORTHEASTERN BIGGER needed decrease shows areas rampant scarce Clairton Wilkinsburg Mc Keesport Homewood target neighborhoodsboroughs recruitment great untapped resources could really champion Houses should existing operating high identify potential summers And just participants benefit greatly close proximity serviced Sponsor part Finding administrative coordinate unique understanding specific needs paramount Earthen Vessels Outreach East Liberty Lawrenceville Similarly Ministry took borough Having greater manageable gives opportunity closely develop its highest STARTUP EXPANSION Potential Many inkind donations Businesses host equipment drives outdoor donate refrigerator oven indoor Foundations grants hoping start mobile rural pockets Workforce Investment Boards set teenagers adults skills Site Supervisor One difficult aspects builtin disseminates partners robocalls universal channel communicated Offices elected officials district superintendents active role constituency Whether mail hosting kickoff events encourage utilize dial find nearest system place courtesy Way begin new vendors Kitchens Springboard Lutheran Society Both workforcetraining such criminal backgrounds homelessness offering life Their market secure industry Not only prison recidivism waste rescuing ripe used next helping prepared plates means definite recognition Over hopes harness energy increase amount roughly bringing projected totals reach goals support businesses owe thousands Chris West Regional Coordinator Office Email cwestpittsburghfoodbankorg Karen Dreyer Director kdreyerpittsburghfoodbankorg FEEDING PARTICIPANTS TOUCHING FAMILIES INC NUTRITION GROUP CATHOLIC CHARITIES PGH HOW DEPT AGRICULTURE PARTNERSHIP SOUTHWESTERN SPONSOR VENDOR PENNSYLVANIA EDUCATION Child Reauthorization Act Administered stage agency Local sponsor teens eat average APPROX CHILDREN Comes Congress Terminal Way Pittsburgh telephone fax wwwjustharvestorg FRESH FOOD ACCESS EVALUATION JUST HARVESTS EBT FARMERS MARKETS PROGRAM FEBRUARY Adrien Schless Meier Emerson National Hunger Fellow February Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Just Harvest extends its profound thanks the many individuals and organizations who contributed their time expertise enthusiasm first year Fresh Access this report appreciate work our partners Citiparks Food Policy Council for collaboration generous support Motorola Foundation Pennsylvania Department Agriculture Heinz Endowments Summer Youth Philanthropy Project making program possible are also grateful customers vendors offered feedback whose valuable insights will help grow coming seasons serve more members greater community Finally thankful Congressional Center placing with during fall winter her greatly value CHCs assistance over past decade Kenneth Regal Executive Director ABOUT HARVEST Founded educates empowers mobilizes people eliminate hunger poverty economic injustice communities influencing public policy engaging advocacy connecting benefits guided understanding that symptom product social Rather than charity policies which respond these conditions needs lowincome best approaches elimination THE CONGRESSIONAL HUNGER CENTER The CHC nonprofit works make issues domestic international priority policymakers government raise new generation leaders fight against Its mission train inspire end advocate create food secure world Fellows Program justice trains inspires sustains supports diversity local national inequality particularly racism gain field experience fighting through placements based across country Washington bridges communitybased efforts fellows develop effective movement CONTENTS Summary Introduction Health Disparities Why Matters Overview Where Operates How Works Who Uses Advertising Promotion Methods Market locations Achievements Customers Vendors Challenges Recommendations Plans Improvement Appendix Glossary References EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This evaluates enables residents use Supplemental Nutrition Assistance SNAP formerly stamps well credit debit cards buy fresh foods six farmers markets PFPC launched two largest East Liberty Northside May expanded ahead schedule four additional Southside Carrick Bloomfield Beechview August Data evaluation come from customer satisfaction surveys focus groups vendor endofseason meeting rapid market assessments overall sales information received financial programs administrative operational costs supported promote all WHY Research shows strong link between inability health like obesity diabetes Nearly half unable affordable healthy own neighborhoods percent Additionally approximately twothirds adults qualify overweight obese have been diagnosed type entire region when reliable access makes buying easier accepting Electronic Benefits Transfer hold users destigmatizes creating central point sale shoppers using alike boosts regional activity small business owners would otherwise shop HOW WORKS has booth each participating decide how much they want spend then wooden tokens denominations creditdebit Having distinct comply USDA regulations regarding SNAPeligible Shoppers can until season ends turn any spent booths record days reimburse week electronic ACCOMPLISHMENTS Our results success achieved total volume transactions accounted These highlight peoples purchasing power economy GLANCE CUSTOMERS had impact ability purchase fruits vegetables boosted consumption produce among participants Among survey respondents rated very important surveyed reported eating since started findings suggest positive step forward mitigating some Pittsburghs dietrelated disparities VENDORS Farmers participated were overwhelmingly satisfied noting increases number made having higher because noticed RECOMMENDATIONS vast majority including partner Nonetheless identified ways improve strengthen Below three primary recommendations Increase targeted promotion Most heard about onsite wordofmouth should increasing marketing draw Create implement incentive recipients Focus group emphasized strategy get increase Creating system where receive free them stretch budgets further lessens severe cuts such those found Farm Bill Public stakeholders sponsors ensure continues enable Pittsburghers control choices contributing stability integrating into operations indicate one promising solution address limited recommend ongoing sectors strategies consistent resources customers X used once INTRODUCTION Even slowly begins recover recession began millions Americans still struggle meet known assists million families nations most critical defense Allegheny County households Xnearly families Xreceive bringing federal nutrition funds every month While strongly significant lives recognize only factor affects vibrancy Menu Justice nearly live supermarket LSA areas Seventyone provide issue locally produced meats cheese eggs bread baked goods near During regularly took place operated Despite prevalence not equipped process mechanism dispersed Historically stamp could paper coupons beginning was implemented statewide shift occurred without effort effectively cutting off source allows debits manages longstanding neighborhood other single entity excellent candidate kind partnership models crosssector leading antihunger organization Southwestern committed ensuring full range affluent peers shopping With goal practical accessible friendly aim destigmatize offering think production benefit area opening revenue streams promoting both demand supply November offers expand HEALTH DISPARITIES PITTSBURGH MATTERS Recent studies paint grim picture regions outcomes qualified eleven More recent data urban often fare worse outside city limits twice likely rate fair poor suburban counterparts less care able afford emergency medical concerns note color disproportionately negative Black white Better correlated incomes though diagnoses decrease income education levels rise race independent effects significantly lower median underscores correlation indicators negatively impacts linked diseases heart disease Increasing already seen projects Shopn Save Hill District demonstrate thrives governments nonprofits hospitals together healthier everyone prepares second continue push continued investment communitydriven deepest inequities Figure staff sell OVERVIEW researchers College Carnegie Mellon University evaluated several accept metropolitan Based CMUs applied license Service currently processes grant funding launch cover daytoday awarded advertising plan addition PFPCs roles implementing operates provides stall space location WHERE OPERATES opened exception closed early September available late detailed map Table Days operation counts estimates All take Daylight Savings Time thereafter Vendor observations Customer RMAs did estimate Day Sales Monday Friday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday SNAP Outreach Initiative in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is a best practices report for anti-hunger advocates in Pittsburgh to utilize undersubscribed government programs for underserved communities. Read more SNAP OUTREACH INITIATIVE Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Written Daniel Valverde Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow This training manual offers recommendations and best practices for outreach based off experiences working with the Southwestern Food Security Partnership Included are how approach agencies techniques followup proposals frequently asked questions Introduction significant problem United States million people considered food insecure Department Agriculture USDA this has cumulative impact individuals leading chronic diseases health impairments which deters growth development children The state over family farms acres land dedicated agriculture home two worlds largest companies Heinz Hersheys Corporation Despite risk hunger according Within county region that makes southwestern percent population live poverty Allegheny County alone more than eligible Stamps not receiving benefits due challenges system Feeding America Partnerships goal significantly reduce counties effectively utilizing government nonprofit organizations increase federal nutrition programs close gap number hungry nearly society will have lasting influence who lack adequate see stunted brain slowed physical impairment Children face insecurity likely hospitalized their lifetime require longer inpatient stays families further prone problems such obesity they alternate between cycles binge eating scarcity correlation was once oxymoronic now apparent modern Issues reliable transportation low quality supermarkets exacerbate epidemic According Research Action Agency make matters worse when healthy available often expensive lowincome neighborhoods compared suburban one estimate cost our roughly per year complications poor education employee absences underperformance costs charitable efforts address whereas national average billion Greater Bank advocates ensure access mitigate effects SPFSP completing fiveyear commitment crisis includes Lawrence Butler Beaver Greene Fayette Somerset Cambria Indiana Armstrong Washington Westmoreland work With help from local community leaders partnering created task force These committees were comprised including educators healthcare workers forprofit entities within structure steering committee research communications advocacy summer Population Receiving Benefits committed ending increasing stamps WIC Summer School Breakfast Federal Nutrition offer assistance adults seniors alleviate Without these forced difficult decisions choosing rent medication gas typically takes back seat other necessitates suffer consequences relying high calorie cheap Highly successful provides additional resources nutritious foods also allows ability bills medicine awareness while improving effectiveness distribution plan identified goals Increase use public private Build broad engagement reducing Advocate strong policy improve relief Collaborate social services providers needs associated Ensure efficient administration antihunger systems main objective utilize under subscribed Lunch collaborative essential part sharing accessing end effective way Programs COMPASS ran program Public Welfare apply online Applying reduces stress stigma accompanies long lines hours waiting welfare offices comprehensive application many applying but several barriers flaws can lead being denied simple clerical errors might arise identify imperfections train organization troubleshoot assisting applicants focused three interns connecting incorporate into daily regiment February affiliated connect trusted deeply rooted them Training empower overcome helping produce applications free responsible shouldering heavy caseloads accounting new existing recruiting willing adopt activities burden sign week years there would Every agency diverse its own nature operates willingness certain dedicate personnel become proficient allow reach need Best Practices Contacting Agencies Our job support partner different suited immediately began contacting meet then set dates Here some learned through time specialist After conducting post results showed met facetoface prior had higher rate success importance meeting cannot understated asking lot already strained take responsibility adding regimen came four parts contact initial followups offering Contact email phone call start conversation informing what encountered attempting first included period response easy dismissal most method requesting next step having oneonone staff Meetings let personal level stressed clients Individual meetings important overarching affect knowledge about expected during after Human Services sent out mass behalf hundreds nonprofits around generate interest produced flood emails calls immediate couple days doubled amount trained influx positive experience since could newest discovered slight predicament arose responses Fist noticed minor fall below waistline Second experienced great deal miscommunication led trainees little information Third rates When occurred increased less confusion employees employers opportunity express significance expectations skipped lump both FAQs limit receive you remain qualified How times reapply months insure your finical situation changed still vehicle Yes One household matter value does count against second resource greater Should fill all chances roommate put wants know even any Can save finish input eform password resume where left Why should Adding Social Number esign signature chose personally mail documents send Sustainability Outreach measure progress involves sustainability imperative shows dedication ensuring enthusiastic component gaps fully properly closing operating providing dispersing navigating participants five collectively loop intend communication constant guaranteeing continue crucial making sure accurately report signups data recording easily tracks each process creating monthly news letter congratulates participation awarding others outstanding Offering awards affirmation boost reminding Recommendations Face participated reconnecting shown Personal trainers pass explaining provide foreseeable future assure Facetoface likelihood interagency dramatically sustainable skip individual Immersion immersion incredibly understanding laws requirements regarding involved obtaining Maneuvering complicated well informed greatly accompanied obligated learn everything regulations very confusing inconsistencies continually recommendation completely immersed filling mock dealing special circumstances scenarios appear read articles stay top legislation affects inevitably sessions Another aspect find answers session uncovered knowledgeable Making contacts Just Harvest Urban League dispensing valuable assets rely clarify trainings Cultivating relationships able pick get correct answer quick manner assist Stay connected Staying reporting accurate numbers seen Accurately political Remaining whenever arises Correctly solving determining factor swaying commit energy direct Certain understand especially clientele rapid pressure Interns discretion isnt dependence want solely instead promote independence Volunteering facilitating predetermined signup before hand guaranteed attendance Directly signing though present unique trainer wellrounded instructor Once month remind There reminders itself remember retrieve every calling behind kindly Work create cover hood missing documentation capability extra mile fax required nearby office choose creative ways Suggesting sample stating proper packet probability mistakes biggest encounter grounds doublecheck paperwork receives beneficial requires effort practice Conclusion entering third half made massive push alleviating place Connecting Meals burdened Spreading numerous successfully thus reaching Working been illuminating movement inspiring encouraging doubt Bibliography Meal Gap Child Insecurity Retrieved httpfeedingamericaorghungerinamericahungerstudiesmapthemealgapmedia Filesresearchmapmeal gap Child Food Insecurity_Executive Summaryashx Low Income Insecure People Are Vulnerable Overweight Obesity february FRAC Web site httpfracorginitiativeshungerandobesitywhyarelowincomeandfoodinsecurepeoplevulnerabletoobesity Comprehensive Plan For Closing httpwwwpittsburghfoodbankorgfoodpartnershipwpcontentuploads Comp Plan Phase Exec Summpdf August About PDA httpwwwagriculturestatepausportalserverptgateway PTARGS______Ag Website Pageaspxname About PDAnavidparentnavidpageid Acknowledgements Just Harvest extends its profound thanks the Congressional Hunger Center for placing Emerson Fellow Zachary Murray with this project during fall and winter Though shortterm visitor Pittsburgh area ably led assessment food desert issues facing our community chief author report The Centers assistance over several years deeply appreciated extend numerous individuals organizations quoted their time interest expertise addition appreciate generosity spirit showed many store owners managers employees who welcomed Zach his team volunteers they assessed resources product mix prices stores are especially thankful particularly from Chatham University Food Studies Program Jewish Social Justice Roundtable able these neighborhood field assessments wise counsel preparation Kenneth Regal Executive Director June About Founded educates empowers mobilizes people eliminate hunger poverty economic injustice communities influencing public policy engaging advocacy connecting benefits guided understanding that symptom social Rather than charity policies which respond conditions needs poor best approaches elimination CHC nonprofit works make domestic international priority policymakers government raise new generation leaders fight against Its mission train inspire work end advocate create secure world National Fellows justice program trains inspires sustains gain experience fighting through placements based across country Washington bridges communitybased efforts national fellows develop effective movement Learn more wwwhungercenterorg Soup Light Intro Deserts Insecurity insecurity was intensified Great Recession high levels unemployment wage stagnation rise household Supplemental Nutrition Assistance SNAP also known Stamps one United States largest safety net programs critical tool alleviation provides lowincome families additional income purchase Allegheny County received April representing percent increase participation six Yet despite increased enrollment still face tough decisions between paying other necessities such housing heat health care estimated cost economy billion yearly due lost productivity well associated ensuing subpar education outcomes spending Part problem lack adequate access altogether magnitude potential solutions provide opportunity businesses alike support improved local complex forces globalization climate change biotechnology affect entire supply must proactively engaged result delivery services And pursue initiatives bolster system maximize selfreliance Focus number existing improving availability healthy foods Local residents responding need better sustainable planting backyard gardens developing communitywide urban farms farmers markets locally sourced far too affordable remains elusive According prepared Department Treasury CDFI Fund Capacity Building Initiative among cities populations has percentage residing lowsupermarket LSA Approximately low city Greater composite ranking second impacted metro including all reside metros areas corresponds forthhighest rate obesity statistics provided depict region American Progress Report Lucas Meats Groceries Perry South appears privilege right citizens Communities supermarket deserts Residents often travel mile most commonly available grocery supermarkets populated vulnerable color higher normal rates prevalence small corner convenience fast absence sources fresh constitute environment scarcity options risk factors lowincomes reliable transportation cooking knowledge Physical distance adds pressure frequently linked diet disease How Addresses Concern dynamic form investigations reports seek determine how contend difficulties burden Reports like used inform responses security being undertaken around Therefore assesses landscape comprehensive status regions These arm about have impact With dimensions draws lay framework recommendations county officials foundations nonprofits while throughout This recognizes changing oasis size doesnt fit Some might benefit stronger selection others good locations economically viable move forward toward range possible longterm human development level information needed captures common determinants preferences choice agriculture systems Applied research tools Pitt Abundance Index aided regard Salad Mix Hill District logical starting place narrative historic hub African culture lacked Over period relied mom pop dollar bus rides jitneys outside says Terri Baltimore Vice President Neighborhood Development House Association However sustained struggle voices within will soon without leaving Centre Heldman Plaza home Shop Save market successful Economic Corporation leverage diverse funding Urban Redevelopment Authority Community Benefits Agreement newly constructed CONSOL Arena state grants incentives fits perfectly into Houses broader endeavors revitalization Avenue corridor anchor commerce employment hope retain dollars trigger redevelopment help lift image Although does not meet formal USDA definition tration geographic isolation retail clearly confirms situation compelling along Homewood subjects nations ambitious studies date RAND Corps year NIH funded PHRESH study focuses measuring changes two data first records shopping eating habits hundreds yet tell rigorous snapshot whats going Tamara Dubowitz Epidemiologist head researcher Corp Among important early findings times Also average miles major where twothirds surveyed see wwwersusdagovdataproductsfoodaccessresearchatlasaspx Old Crawford Grill less per traveled comparably however unlike slated open Bridging Busway plan transit hubs lists Hamilton Avenues equitable but finds unlikely location until surrounding stabilizes surmounting concerns concentrated abandonment crime barrier collective indigenous Kayla Watkins Health Wellness coordinator Childrens Village HCV much useful bit limited Most were elderly lived children fully reflect realities Our Homewoods made healthier Bible Church YMCA focused providing stressing ownership really whole approach importance communitys voice any initiative Stephanie Boddie John Wallace overcome barriers faculty members School Work involvement lending academic credibility lingering challenges proposing ideas currency banking cashless concept would centrally located interface featuring storefront pantry caf commercial kitchen culinary training center farm business incubation type bold visionary thinking involves collaborations Grow Bank forefront citys use selfsufficiency Julie Pezzino aware what activist Karen calls apartheid want empower dont buy grow themselves discussion solution confident can just Bakers Dairy City Growers empowerment gardenseach countyare Since founding worked build base each engages Recognizing some unique rarely capacity seeks strategic determining relationship organization focus building upon ensure sustainability garden Von Singletary Landslide Farm get point intentionally because block part promotes living Recently Mayor Luke Ravenstahls office announced expanded remediation gardening vacant lots Knowledge engagement resource could success Green Edible Gardens dozen Braddock Farms strongest assets runs distributes million pounds distributed Banks extensive network Pantries distribution Now twentieth Stand Project makes produce Vicki Lish describes stand partnership buys top quality sell stands centers senior churches Each equipped accept EBT Electronic Benefit Transfer Farmers Market WIC participants seniors staff complement recipes nutrition demonstrations Additionally Produce People items below eight trucks distribute hours site Through gathering insecure live shop regularly complements Gap Study measures countywide offering enhancements Collaboration Hilltop Alliance resulted spinoff Southside pantries cant folks minutes Pat Murphy former currently conducting assess conclusion according every toolbox weve here considering models Sustainability Coordinator Aftyn Giles offers similar those interested should find out ways sense targeting culturally appropriate cites governments recent example shift outreach February Policy Council PFPC allies advocated Pittsburghs Planning passage Agriculture Zoning Code code growers added protections though remain involved secured permission pilot implementation Stamp acceptance Citi Parks Markets Launched May Northside East Liberty enables stamp users shoppers achieve urge deeper clarify role identify strategies chair Heather Mikulas order leading marketing campaign expand visibility popularity Citiparks shared value sectors Justin Pizzella general manager End Coop represent chain challenge affected developed plugs financial targets coop operates triple bottom line model taking profits reinvesting them sees facilitate stresses there overlapping childcare bring table immediate steps expanding way groups One effort credits commitment sweat equity Fishes Loaves Buying club Hazelwood brainchild Rev Les Boone assist biweekly groceries unable remaining waterfront Almono brownfield nearly investment There happening already come investors adaptive reuse church indoor destination Second Diane Schenk volunteer creation space include meat stalls entrepreneurs Internet job incubator microenterprises For article next page bright Saturday morning basement Christian set Inside wellbuilt humble brick quiet steady stream busy checking display neatly arranged Bags bags ranging apples bananas oranges peppers kale collard greens tables determined response slow coming Bill Kulina property Towers large apartment door Weve got physical limitations places But Saturdays twice monthly buying residentsmany lowincomesmust reach nearest isolated acute young single moms dads creates serious had boxes Meals Wheels complained itcanned goodsthat preservatives nutritional decided peoples eat started friends wont wait Reverend FLs founders From working drew something box affects Joann Shirley neighbors discussing experiences characterize rough thought take Access shuttle compared hard leave pounding pavement uphill least born disabled call day ahead didnt even ride Xrays afford cab worse cabs her Giant Eagle Wal Mart when own she takes Joanns allocation hospitalized werent wouldnt medicine Shirleys story towers depend little created dealing life Leslie seated Volunteers Photo Shenk fruit summer recalls Carol resident member run closes season distant Strip brings said Thats enlisted staples famous fish Wholeys loaves Mancinis Breads pick either lunchtime lounge enjoy delicious meals using vegetables particular January enjoyed Stuffed green pepper soup warm soul chocolate chip cookies sweeten palette together very break bread say did extra meal Often treated free They familiarize vegetable artichoke spend week trying heard kind ear words encouragement heavily loss jobs decline real estate Main Course Taste Region Environment Profiles Vacant Storefronts dot Miller Clairton Methods defines ten rural setting debate continues misses define account elements separated steep hills severely impede walkability What under crow flies routes hilly topography Moreover significance overall vehicle definitive meaning scholars debating acceptable standard thing clear consider full demographic Using Census Survey Year selected median households Geographic Information System GIS retailers retailer attempt profile neighborhoods explores variety diversity localized Finally FAI Audrey Murrell researchers affiliated Business measure accessible aid assessing five dynamics density accessibility measured score card whether gap clusters highest bounty Leakage spent demand calculated Reinvestment profiles feature results action maps section Commons online show includes further analysis examining Retailer Listings follow individual categorized follows Assessed indicates conducted inperson visits view products Store Type described Convenience Store Corner Limited Assortment LAS typically larger drugstores aisles mediumsized Grocery Supermarket Fresh visited Three Groups Available three categories Fruits Vegetables canned frozen Breads Cereals Grains Products Beans southeastern West banks Monongahela River fourth storefronts Ave Clair glaring reminder rapid experienced last proudly recall glory days now passed lined blocks main corridors steel mill thousands Today bird Elizabeth actually away walk Supercenter Mifflin riders cross dangerous roads transfer group stem tide CEDC Jeanette Meacham cars busses Glassport none gas stations sold strides Unity Garden town plots veggies once NEIGHBORHOOD PROFILE CLAIRTON Population Race white black Median parent employed TRF Retail Demand Nearest Distance Assessment Status Desert Recommendations features neighboring Port Transit lines service amenities rely directly connects preferred Area Listing Name Address Zip Family Dollar General Lifespan Fuelon Cstore Swinkos Woodland RITE AID Saint Uni Mart State Dees Minimart Sunoco Pennsylvania Nas Desiderio Stores Millvale borough North shore opposite comparatively ACS estimates Except seasonal onceweekly None pharmacies substantial grocer side Shaler Township half trip fairly direct serviced parents poses Families dependent sacrifice money innerring suburb easy overlook presence population boroughs towns lower leaked boost ar NEIGHBORHOOD MILLVALE Household Income eas Streets portion suggest Grant Yetters Dairy Candies Borough Lincoln Mc Kees Rocks Stowe Twin predominately residential Ohio Between both slight declines Aldi Bottom Unlike core districts almost entirely lacks closest suburban Kennedy encourages MCKEES ROCKS STOWE TOWNSHIPThe WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) in Allegheny County: Barriers to Participation and Recommendations for a Stronger Future identifies challenges that prevent utilization of the FMNP…

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An Analysis of Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity That Challenges Assumptions Underlying Current Primary Care Practices Of Lifestyle Counseling And Obesity Prevention Feasibility of mobile technology for monitoring dietary intake in resource-limited communities: Investigating the use of digital food records in the Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment in Washington, D.

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